民主与教育
Democracy and Education

  • 作   者:

    约翰·杜威
    John Dewey

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

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  • 电子书:

    ¥5.90

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杜威一生著述甚丰,而以《民主与教育》影响最大。在英美学者的眼里,这本书可以与柏拉图的《理想国》,卢梭的《爱弥儿》相提并论。而且理想国也好,爱弥儿也罢,都还只停留在理念阶段,而杜威却把理念与实践贯穿起来,对美国教育的巨大影响无论怎么估计都不过分。

杜威之所以能够引起这么大的反响,是因为他抓住了美国传统教育的核心问题,一曰脱离社会,二曰脱离儿童。杜威从自己的实用主义哲学出发,就教育本质问题提出了他的基本观点,“教育即生活”和“学校即社会”。在杜威看来,教育是儿童现在的生活过程,而不是将来生活的预备,最好的教育是“从生活中学习”,“从经验中学习”。因此,教育的目的就在教育的过程之中,教育除了他自身以外无目的。基于这种认识,杜威强调学校应该是一个小型的社会,应该把校内学习与校外学习连接起来。他尖锐地指出:“学校的最大浪费是由于儿童在学校中不能完全的自由的运用他在校外获得的经验;同时,另一方面,他又不能把在学校所学的运用于日常生活。”这种把儿童当作知识容器的教育导致了“为了深远的和多少不可知的将来,而牺牲现在”,使儿童缺乏现实生活能力,变得“恭顺,服从,小心从事”,没有了首创精神和责任感。

针对美国教育的这种弊病,杜威提出了“从做中学”的基本原则,即把获取主观经验作为确定教材、教法和教学过程的基本原则。

杜威还提出了科学思维的原则,他认为,好的教学必须能唤起儿童的思维,学校必须提供可以引起思维的经验的情境。他把思维过程分成五个步骤:一是疑难的情境,二是确定疑难的所在,三是提出解决疑难的各种假设,四是对这些假设进行推断,五是验证或者修改假设。由此出发,他认为,教学过程也相应地分了五个步骤,一是老师给儿童提供一个与现在的社会生活经验相联系的情境,二是儿童有准备地去应付在情境中产生的问题,三是使儿童产生对解决问题的思考和假设,四是儿童自己对解决问题的假设加以整理与排列,五是儿童通过应用来检验这些假设。这种教学过程就是教育史上有名的“教学五步”。

In Democracy and Education, Dewey argues that the primary ineluctable facts of the birth and death of each one of the constituent members in a social group determine the necessity of education. On one hand, there is the contrast between the immaturity of the new-born members of the group (its future sole representatives) and the maturity of the adult members who possess the knowledge and customs of the group. On the other hand, there is the necessity that these immature members be not merely physically preserved in adequate numbers, but that they be initiated into the interests, purposes, information, skill, and practices of the mature members: otherwise the group will cease its characteristic life.

Dewey observes that even in a "savage" tribe, the achievements of adults are far beyond what the immature members would be capable of if left to themselves. With the growth of civilization, the gap between the original capacities of the immature and the standards and customs of the elders increases. Mere physical growing up and mastery of the bare necessities of subsistence will not suffice to reproduce the life of the group. Deliberate effort and the taking of thoughtful pains are required. Beings who are born not only unaware of, but quite indifferent to, the aims and habits of the social group have to be rendered cognizant of them and actively interested. According to Dewey, education, and education alone, spans the gap.

本书被誉为二十世纪最重要的教育思想著作。作者详述了实用主义的教育理论,结合民主的理念剖析教育事业所面临的问题。书中不仅探讨了教育的性质、作用及目的等抽象的内容,同时也涵盖教育过程中遇到的具体问题。杜威一生著述甚丰,而以《民主与教育》影响最大。在英美学者的眼里,这本书可以与柏拉图的《理想国》,卢梭的《爱弥儿》相提并论。

Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education is a 1916 book by John Dewey. Dewey sought to at once synthesize, criticize, and expand upon the democratic (or proto-democratic) educational philosophies of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Plato. He saw Rousseau's philosophy as overemphasizing the individual and Plato's philosophy as overemphasizing the society in which the individual lived.

For Dewey, this distinction was largely a false one; like Lev Vygotsky, he viewed the mind and its formation as a communal process. Thus the individual is a meaningful concept only when regarded as an inextricable part of his or her society, and the society has no meaning apart from its realization in the lives of its individual members. As evidenced in his later Experience and Nature (1925), this practical element, learning by doing, arose from his subscription to the philosophical school of Pragmatism.

约翰·杜威(John Dewey)是实用主义的集大成者。一位评论家说他是“实用主义神圣实用主义神圣家族的家长”(M.怀特)。如果说皮尔士创立了实用主义的方法,威廉·詹姆斯建立了实用主义的真理观,那么,杜威则建造了实用主义的理论大厦。他的著作很多,涉及科学、艺术、宗教伦理、政治、教育、社会学、历史学和经济学诸方面,使实用主义成为美国特有的文化现象。

John Dewey, FAA ( October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, leading activist in the Georgist movement, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the founders of functional psychology. A well-known public intellectual, he was also a major voice of progressive education and liberalism. Although Dewey is known best for his publications about education, he also wrote about many other topics, including epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, art, logic, social theory, and ethics.

  • PREFACE
  • Chapter 1 Education as A Necessity of Life
  • Chapter 2 Education as a Social Function
  • Chapter 3 Education as Direction
  • Chapter 4 Education as Growth
  • Chapter 5 Preparation, Unfolding, And Formal Discipline
  • Chapter 6 Education as Conservative and Progressive
  • Chapter 7 The Democratic Conception in Education
  • Chapter 8 Aims In Education
  • Chapter 9 Natural Development and Social Efficiency as Aims
  • Chapter 10 Interest and Discipline
  • Chapter 11 Experience and Thinking
  • Chapter 12 Thinking in Education
  • Chapter 13 The Nature of Method
  • Chapter 14 The Nature of Subject Matter
  • Chapter 15 Play and Work in the Curriculum
  • Chapter 16 The Significance of Geography and History
  • Chapter 17 Science in the Course of Study
  • Chapter 18 Educational Values
  • Chapter 19 Labor and Leisure
  • Chapter 20 Intellectual and Practical Studies
  • Chapter 21 Physical and Social Studies: Naturalism and Humanism
  • Chapter 22 The Individual and the World
  • Chapter 23 Vocational Aspects of Education
  • Chapter 24 Philosophy of Education
  • Chapter 25 Theories of Knowledge
  • Chapter 26 Theories of Morals
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