论人类不平等的起源和基础
A Discourse upon the Origin and the Foundation of the Inequality Among Mankind

  • 作   者:

    让-雅克·卢梭
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

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本书讨论的是既给我们带来财富,又给我们带来罪恶的不平等、压迫和剥削。《论人类不平等的起源》是法国大革命的灵魂,对不平等的起源和人生的真实需要洞察足以贯穿上下五千年、纵横八万里的人类历史,对心灵的拷问和解剖最为坦率、真切。今天,那些处于国际等级统治和剥削体系上层的人把卢梭丑化为极权主义的始祖,但是,这样,他们也就把自己放到了绝大多数人民的对立面。事实上,正是卢梭式的对平等、民主、和人性自由的强烈的追求,才有可能形成一个庞大的中产阶级,才有可能使工业革命的财富不至于被一小撮垄断寡头所独占。

卢梭在本书中假想人类在进入社会状态前曾生活在自然状态中:那时的人类过着离群索居的生活,没有固定的家庭生活,没有住宅,没有财产,人没有互相攻击和掠夺的本性,只有怜悯他人和自我保存的天然感情;人的各种机能(诸如理性、语言、观念)、欲望和情感(尤其是爱慕、虚荣、贪婪)都处于低级阶段,不存在精神的、政治的不平等。但是人有独特的异于禽兽的自我完善化的能力,共同劳动、家庭的发展促进了人与人的交往,使人的潜在机能被激发起来,导致社会状态的出现。私有制是文明社会的基础,农业和冶金术的发明是导致这一巨大变革的决定性原因。从此人类产生了许多新的欲望和偏见,道德急剧堕落,富人和穷人的差别出现了,人类落入了可怕的战争状态。于是富人哄骗穷人订立社会契约,社会和法律就是这样起源的,它们保护富人欺压穷人,这是不平等发展的第一阶段。订立了契约就需要有保障其实施的强力机构,权力的设立是不平等发展的第二阶段,它确立强者和弱者的区别。暴君政治的出现是不平等发展的第三阶段和顶点,它确立主人和奴隶的区别。既然暴君依仗暴力蹂躏法律,人民就有权用暴力推翻他。本书中的美好的自然状态和邪恶的文明社会对立的论点,导致了卢梭同崇尚理性和进步的18世纪法国唯物主义者的决裂。

The text was written in 1754 in response to a prize competition of the Academy of Dijon answering the prompt: What is the origin of inequality among people, and is it authorized by natural law? Though he was not recognized by the prize committee for this piece (as he had been for the Discourse on the Arts and Sciences) he nevertheless published the text in 1755.

本书是1755年卢梭应法国第戎科学院的征文而写的论文。在性质上,这是一部阐发政治思想的著作,其重要性仅次于1762年卢梭的《社会契约论》;而在思想体系上,本书可视为《社会契约论》的基础的绪论。当卢梭同时代的一些哲学家把人类的进步设想为一个不断上升的过程时,卢梭却已发现人类历史发展本身所具有的两面性(进步与落后)和所包含的内在矛盾。他认为贫困和奴役,亦即人类不平等的产物。

Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (French: Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes), also commonly known as the "Second Discourse", is a work by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Rousseau first exposes in this work his conception of a human state of nature, presented as a philosophical fiction (like by Thomas Hobbes, unlike by John Locke), and of human perfectibility, an early idea of progress. He then explains the way, according to him, people may have established civil society, which leads him to present private property as the original source and basis of all inequality.

卢梭(Jean-Jacques Rousseau,让·雅各·卢梭)(1712.6.28——1778.7.2)是法国著名启蒙思想家、哲学家、教育家、文学家,是18世纪法国大革命的思想先驱,启蒙运动最卓越的代表人物之一。在哲学上,卢梭主张感觉是认识的来源,坚持“自然神论”的观点;强调人性本善,信仰高于理性。在社会观上,卢梭坚持社会契约论,主张建立资产阶级的“理性王国”;主张自由平等,反对大私有制及其压迫;提出“天赋人权说”,反对专制、暴政。在教育上,他主张教育目的在培养自然人;反对封建教育戕害、轻视儿童,要求提高儿童在教育中的地位;主张改革教育内容和方法,顺应儿童的本性,让他们的身心自由发展,反映了资产阶级和广大劳动人民从封建专制主义下解放出来的强烈要求。其主要著作有《社会契约论》、《爱弥儿》、《忏悔录》等。

Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought.

Rousseau's novel émile, or On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction. Rousseau's autobiographical writings — his Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, and his Reveries of a Solitary Walker — exemplified the late 18th-century movement known as the Age of Sensibility, and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing. His Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought.

Rousseau was a successful composer of music, who wrote seven operas as well as music in other forms, and made contributions to music as a theorist. As a composer, his music was a blend of the late Baroque style and the emergent Classical fashion, and he belongs to the same generation of transitional composers as Christoph Willibald Gluck and C.P.E. Bach. One of his more well-known works is the one-act opera Le devin du village, containing the duet "Non, Colette n'est point trompeuse" which was later rearranged as a standalone song by Beethoven.

During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club. Rousseau was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death.

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