Natural Value

  • 作   者:

    Frederich Freiherr von Wieser

  • 出版社:

    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

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The main purpose of Natural Value may be read in chap. vi. of Book II.. The general reader, however, will possibly find the most suggestive matter in chapters incidental to this main development, particularly in the attacks on Socialist theory. To English economists, again, I venture to think that there are three points which will specially commend themselves as original contributions to our science. These are, the re-setting of the elementary conception of value in Book I., the application to distribution in Books III. and IV., and the bringing of the law of cost of production within the compass of the general Marginal Law in Book V.. If an editor’s preface has any function it is, I imagine, to elucidate point which his, presumably, close study of the book have shown to be difficult, and my connection with the Austrian School may, perhaps, justify me in putting these points in my own way.


Wieser is renowned for two main works, Natural Value, which carefully details the alternative-cost doctrine and the theory of imputation, and his Social Economics (1914). In Natural Value von Wieser introduced the theory of imputation and the alternative-cost doctrine, and is credited with the concepts that became known as marginal utility. The Opportunity Cost Theory is considered a valuable contribution from Weiser. His economic distinction between public goods and private goods is still used by economists as one of the main elements of the concept of marginal utility.

弗里德里希 ·冯· 维塞尔(Frederich Freiherr von Wieser)出生于维也纳一个高级军官家庭,早年在维也纳大学学习法律,毕业后到奥地利政府机关供职达10年。曾去德国,在历史学派的W.罗雪尔、B.希尔德布兰德(1812~1878)、K.G.A.克尼斯(1821~1898)等指导下研修经济学。1884年到布拉格大学任教,1889年成为该校经济学教授。1903年接替岳父C.门格尔任维也纳大学经济学教授。1917年后,任奥匈帝国上议院终身议员,并在奥匈帝国最后两届内阁中任商务大臣。

Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser (July 10, 1851–July 22, 1926) was an early (so-called "first generation") economist of the Austrian School of economics. Born in Vienna, the son of Privy Councillor Leopold von Wieser, a high official in the war ministry, he first trained in sociology and law. In 1872, the year he took his degree, he encountered Austrian-school founder Carl Menger's Grundsätze and switched his interest to economic theory. Wieser held posts at the universities of Vienna and Prague until succeeding Menger in Vienna in 1903, where, with brother-in-law Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, he shaped the next generation of Austrian economists including Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek and Joseph Schumpeter in the late 1890s and early 20th century. He became Austrian finance minister in 1917.

  • Author's Preface
  • Book 1 The Elementary Theory of Value
  • Book 2 Exchange Value and Natural Value
  • Book 3 The Natural Imputation of the Return from Production
  • Book 4 The Natural Value of Land, Capital, and Labour
  • Book 5 The Natural Cost Value of Products
  • Book 6 Value in the Economy of the State