自然价值
Natural Value

  • 作   者:

    维塞尔
    Frederich Freiherr von Wieser

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 版   本:

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  • 电子书:

    ¥5.90

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维塞尔继承和发展了门格尔的主观价值论。他和门格尔一样,以人对满足其需要的财物的效用的主观评价来说明价值。他最先提出“边际效用”一词,说明价值是由“边际效用”决定的。照维塞尔的解释,某一财物要具有价值,它必须既有效用,又有稀少性,效用和稀少性相结合是边际效用,从而是价值形成的必要和充分的条件。他所谓的“边际效用”就是人们在消费某一财物时随着消费数量的增加而递减的一系列效用中最后一个单位的消费品的效用,即最小效用。该财物每一单位的价值都由边际效用来决定,其总价值等于边际效用与单位数的乘积。维塞尔把这种由边际效用决定的价值叫做“自然价值”。维塞尔还把边际效用理论应用于解释分配,并提出所谓“归属论”。他认为生产财物即生产资料的价值是由他们所生产的消费财物的边际效用决定的,这价值应按各个生产要素在生产中的作用或“贡献”大小,以一定份额“归属”于各有关生产要素,从而构成各生产要素的收益,工资、利息、地租就是劳动、资本、土地各生产要素的收益,这些收益归根结底都是主观评价的结果。维塞尔用主观心理来解释价值、利息、地租等,完全抹煞了这些经济范畴的客观性和历史性,掩盖了它们的真正来源和本质,其目的就在于否定马克思主义劳动价值论和剩余价值论,为资本主义制度辩护。

The main purpose of Natural Value may be read in chap. vi. of Book II.. The general reader, however, will possibly find the most suggestive matter in chapters incidental to this main development, particularly in the attacks on Socialist theory. To English economists, again, I venture to think that there are three points which will specially commend themselves as original contributions to our science. These are, the re-setting of the elementary conception of value in Book I., the application to distribution in Books III. and IV., and the bringing of the law of cost of production within the compass of the general Marginal Law in Book V.. If an editor’s preface has any function it is, I imagine, to elucidate point which his, presumably, close study of the book have shown to be difficult, and my connection with the Austrian School may, perhaps, justify me in putting these points in my own way.

本书是维塞尔最重要的经济学著作,也是奥地利学派的理论代表作之一。其主要论题是“自然价值”,试图以此解决边际效应决定价值的理论所遇到的各种矛盾。作者还将此概念与边际分析方法应用于成本和分配方面,建立了“归属理论”和“成本定律”,从而完整化和系统化了奥地利学派的理论结构,也将主观价值理论大大推进了一步。维塞尔的这套理论,后来逐步发展成西方微观经济等理论基础之一。

Wieser is renowned for two main works, Natural Value, which carefully details the alternative-cost doctrine and the theory of imputation, and his Social Economics (1914). In Natural Value von Wieser introduced the theory of imputation and the alternative-cost doctrine, and is credited with the concepts that became known as marginal utility. The Opportunity Cost Theory is considered a valuable contribution from Weiser. His economic distinction between public goods and private goods is still used by economists as one of the main elements of the concept of marginal utility.

弗里德里希 ·冯· 维塞尔(Frederich Freiherr von Wieser)出生于维也纳一个高级军官家庭,早年在维也纳大学学习法律,毕业后到奥地利政府机关供职达10年。曾去德国,在历史学派的W.罗雪尔、B.希尔德布兰德(1812~1878)、K.G.A.克尼斯(1821~1898)等指导下研修经济学。1884年到布拉格大学任教,1889年成为该校经济学教授。1903年接替岳父C.门格尔任维也纳大学经济学教授。1917年后,任奥匈帝国上议院终身议员,并在奥匈帝国最后两届内阁中任商务大臣。

Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser (July 10, 1851–July 22, 1926) was an early (so-called "first generation") economist of the Austrian School of economics. Born in Vienna, the son of Privy Councillor Leopold von Wieser, a high official in the war ministry, he first trained in sociology and law. In 1872, the year he took his degree, he encountered Austrian-school founder Carl Menger's Grundsätze and switched his interest to economic theory. Wieser held posts at the universities of Vienna and Prague until succeeding Menger in Vienna in 1903, where, with brother-in-law Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, he shaped the next generation of Austrian economists including Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek and Joseph Schumpeter in the late 1890s and early 20th century. He became Austrian finance minister in 1917.

  • Author's Preface
  • Book 1 The Elementary Theory of Value
  • Book 2 Exchange Value and Natural Value
  • Book 3 The Natural Imputation of the Return from Production
  • Book 4 The Natural Value of Land, Capital, and Labour
  • Book 5 The Natural Cost Value of Products
  • Book 6 Value in the Economy of the State
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