伯罗奔尼撒战争史
History of the Peloponnesian War

  • 作   者:

    修昔底德
    Thucydides

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

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《伯罗奔尼撒战争史》体现了修昔底德严谨的治学态度和缜密的史学方法,他把当时希腊哲学家那种追求真理的精神和逻辑方法应用到历史研究中,为后世的历史编纂学树立了光辉的典范。此外,修昔底德这种以年代为主线的历史叙事体的编撰体例,以及注重军事和政治的撰史传统,对后世欧美史学的发展都产生了深远影响。

Written four hundred years before the birth of Christ, this detailed contemporary account of the struggle between Athens and Sparta stands an excellent chance of fulfilling the author's ambitious claim that the work "was done to last forever." The conflicts between the two empires over shipping, trade, and colonial expansion came to a head in 431 b.c. in Northern Greece, and the entire Greek world was plunged into 27 years of war. Thucydides applied a passion for accuracy and a contempt for myth and romance in compiling this exhaustively factual record of the disastrous conflict that eventually ended the Athenian empire.

Thucydides' History has been enormously influential in both ancient and modern historiography. Analyses of the History generally occur in one of two camps. On the one hand, some scholars view the work as an objective and scientific piece of history. The judgment of J. B. Bury reflects his traditional interpretation of the work: "[The History is] severe in its detachment, written from a purely intellectual point of view, unencumbered with platitudes and moral judgments, cold and critical." On the other hand, in keeping with more recent interpretation that are associated with reader-response criticism, the History is better understood as a piece of literature rather than an objective record of the historical events. This view is embodied in the words of W. R. Connor, who describes Thucydides as "an artist who responds to, selects and skillfully arranges his material, and develops its symbolic and emotional potential."

本书是古希腊历史学家修昔底德倾注毕生心力写就的西方史学巨著。作为战争的亲历者,修昔底德详细地记录了伯罗奔尼撒战争事件,并分析了这场战争的原因和背景。这是人类第一次以科学、历史学的形式记录下来的史实,文风恢弘大气,既适合英文学习者鉴赏英文句法,又适合历史、文学爱好者研读品位历史。

The History of the Peloponnesian War is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).The author's account of the conflict is widely considered to be a classic and regarded as one of the earliest scholarly works of history. The History is divided into eight books.

修昔底德,古希腊历史学家,是在高度成熟了的希腊文化的熏陶下成长起来的。根据《伯罗奔尼撒战争史》中偶尔提及的有关他自己的文字内容判断:他约出生于公元前460年,其父奥罗路斯是雅典的贵族,其家族在色雷斯沿海地区拥有金矿开采权。他在雅典长大,自幼受到良好的教育。他生活的时代正值雅典的极盛时期,也是古希腊文化的全盛时期。成年以后,他也像大多数贵族子弟一样,凭借家族的门第和个人的才干而步入仕途。伯罗奔尼撒战争爆发时,他已经30岁左右,并可能已投身军旅。军旅生涯使他积累了一定的军事经验,因而于公元前424年被推选为雅典的“十将军”之一。此后的20年间,他始终关注着伯罗奔尼撒战争的进展情况,随时记下具体过程。据说他经常到各地战场去进行实地考察,甚至还去过伯罗奔尼撒同盟军队的阵地和西西里岛。公元前404年,战争结束以后,他才获得特赦,得以重返故乡雅典。

Thucydides was an Athenian historian, political philosopher and general. His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC. Thucydides has been dubbed the father of "scientific history" because of his strict standards of evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect without reference to intervention by the gods, as outlined in his introduction to his work.

He has also been called the father of the school of political realism, which views the relations between nations as based on might rather than right. His text is still studied at advanced military colleges worldwide, and the Melian dialogue remains a seminal work of international relations theory.

More generally, Thucydides showed an interest in developing an understanding of human nature to explain behaviour in such crises as plague, massacres, as in that of the Melians, and civil war.

  • BOOK I
  • BOOK II
  • BOOK III
  • BOOK IV
  • BOOK V
  • BOOK VI
  • BOOK VII
  • BOOK VIII
  • 国与国之间的较量

    提洛同盟和伯罗奔尼撒同盟之间数十年的征战,野蛮、荒谬,依我看来就像是两伙野兽混战,还各自以为自己很聪明。希腊文明就这么被糟蹋了。战争是不可避免的,人的情商有限。战争要用谋略,要研究作战方法,调兵遣将,后方供给,都不得不考虑。战争是对人力、物力的巨大浪费。展开↓